We sought to identify cases of cancer transmission or non-transmission from transplantation in an Australian cohort of donors and recipients. We included NSW solid organ deceased donors 2000-2012 and living donors 2004-2012 in a retrospective cohort using linked data from the NSW Biovigilance Register (SAFEBOD). Central Cancer Registry (CCR) data 1972-2013 provided a minimum one-year post-transplant follow-up. We identified cancers in donors and recipients. For each donor-recipient pair, the transmission was judged likely, possible, unlikely, or excluded using categorization from international guidelines. In our analysis, transmissions included those judged likely, while those judged possible, unlikely, or excluded were non-transmissions. In our cohort, there were 2502 recipients and 1431 donors (715 deceased, 716 living). There were 2544 transplant procedures, including 1828 (72%) deceased and 716 (28%) living donor transplants. Among 1431 donors, 38 (3%) had past or current cancer and they donated to 68 recipients (median 6.7-year follow-up). There were 64 (94%) non-transmissions, and 4 (6%) transmissions from two living and two deceased donors (all kidney cancers discovered during organ recovery). Donor transmitted cancers are rare, and selected donors with a past or current cancer may be safe for transplantation.